By Lisa Pulsifer
The Harry Ransom Center holds a wide variety of materials, from Robert De Niro’s Taxi Driver script and costume to Einstein’s theory of gravitational waves. These and many other items are on display in our current exhibition Stories to Tell: Selections from the Harry Ransom Center. The stories told in the exhibition can bring to mind music that’s meaningful to your experiences, and we invite you to share Read more
By Kathleen Telling
Peter Bay is the Music Director and Conductor of the Austin Symphony Orchestra. His resume includes appearances with more than 75 orchestras, several summer music festivals around the nation, multiple positions as Music Director, and past experiences as Conductor at several orchestras, including the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and Richmond Symphony in Virginia. Read more
By Justine Provino
Justine Provino is a recent graduate of the Master of Conservation of Cultural Heritage program at the University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, in the Book and Paper Department with Professor Claude Laroque. From October 2014 through February 2015 she worked as an intern in the Ransom Center’s book lab with Senior Conservator Olivia Primanis, and in the paper lab with Conservator Heather Hamilton. Read more
By Kathleen Telling
Critically acclaimed Austin composer Graham Reynolds (Golden Arm Trio, Bernie, Before Sunset) breathes new life into Frank Reaugh’s 1933 masterpiece, Twenty-four Hours with the Herd, a musical presentation of Reaugh’s stunning seven-part pastel series depicting the West Texas plains as a backdrop to cattle drives. Read more
Undergraduates review music production records for “Rebecca” to understand business side of Hollywood film scores
By Jim Buhler
James Buhler is an Associate Professor in Music Theory and the Director of the Center for American Music at The University of Texas at Austin. Below, he writes about using materials from the Ransom Center’s David O. Selznick collection to teach students in his Signature Course “Introduction to Music and Film Sound” about the business of being a music composer in Hollywood.
One of the innovative elements of Signature Courses at The University of Texas at Austin is that they require a visit by the class to one of the research centers, libraries, performing arts venues, or museums on campus. The idea is for the course to introduce students to one of the numerous Gems of the University. In my case, I selected the Harry Ransom Center because its David O. Selznick collection has extensive archival material on the music production for all the films made by Selznick International Pictures (SIP). (For an overview of the music holdings in this collection, see Nathan Platte’s blog post.)
My Signature Course is reasonably large (120 students), and it is not feasible to base a big project around our visit to the Ransom Center. And with students having only 50 minutes to examine materials, I cannot expect that students will be able to get anything more than a general impression of what’s available in the collection. Nevertheless, through careful selection of documents, I can use the collection to reinforce points made in lecture: films require coordinating the labor of a large number of people, much of it unacknowledged in the screen credits, and even the creative talent credited in the film in practice retained few rights over the products of their labor. Students are continually surprised to discover that Hollywood composers had few rights over their music.
Most of the material I have the students look at comes from the production Rebecca (1940). Directed by Alfred Hitchcock and with a score by Franz Waxman, Rebecca is artistically one of Selznick’s more successful films. We look at many documents, including these:
- a contract between SIP and MGM for the right to use Waxman who was under contract at the time with MGM
- various contracts between SIP and MGM for the right to use music Waxman wrote while working at MGM
- contracts between SIP and various composers and orchestrators for work on Rebecca
- time sheets documenting the orchestral players and pay rates at various recording sessions
- a copyright registration under Selznick’s (not Waxman’s) name for the title music to Rebecca
- a contract between SIP and Irving Berlin Music to manage the musical rights of Rebecca
- and a letter from Waxman to Selznick asking for permission to play a suite from Rebecca on a radio show.
These documents all serve to emphasize the basic economic conditions of soundtrack production. Music is not something that just appears on a film’s soundtrack: it is made by people and at considerable time and expense. Moreover, the music and its production costs are carefully tracked throughout the process of production. The studio claimed complete ownership of the music, and composers did not even enjoy the right to play excerpts of their music at a concert or on the radio. (This situation would change only in the 1970s.)
Composers also had little control over the music in the film. Time constraints meant that composers nearly always used orchestrators, and as was the case with the score to Rebecca, frequently several composers beyond whoever was credited for it contributed additional music to the score. Moreover, cues could be replaced by other music without the composer’s permission. In at least one place in Rebecca, for instance, music by Max Steiner from an earlier SIP film replaced a portion of Waxman’s score. The insert is clearly visible in the working production score, which is another item I have the students examine. Because Selznick owned the rights to this music by Steiner, this change would not have cost the studio anything.
The students come away from their visit to the Ransom Center with a very concrete sense that music production costs a considerable sum of money, that numerous people are involved in it, and that composers, although well compensated, sacrificed most rights over their music during the studio era. These are points that I can and do make in lecture as well, but when students visit the Center and see the documents in person it seems to make a much larger impression.
Image: Manuscript of violin score from Rebecca by Franz Waxman from the David O. Selznick collection.
Texas collection of comedias sueltas and Spanish theater available for research and in online database
By Jennifer Tisdale
The Texas Collection of Comedias Sueltas and Spanish Theater is available for research. Individual records for each suelta are also available in an online database, providing extensive information about the collection.
The collection includes more than 15,000 “comedias sueltas,” a generic term for plays published in small pamphlet format in Spain from the early seventeenth century through the early twentieth century. The materials at the Ransom Center have been described as one of the major collections of Spanish dramatic literature in suelta form in North America.
Within the collection, more than 2,500 authors were identified of sueltas and related works published between 1603 and late 1930s. Nearly 600 sueltas at the Cushing Library at Texas A&M University were also cataloged as part of the project.
The Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) funded the cataloging project “Revealing Texas Collections of Comedias Sueltas” under its “Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives” initiative. CLIR is a nonprofit organization that works with libraries, cultural institutions, and communities of higher learning to enhance research and teaching.
On September 29-30, the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at The University of Texas at Austin, the Department of Hispanic Studies at Texas A&M University and the Ransom Center will host the conference “The State of the Comedia Suelta: Celebrating the Texas Collections.” Held at the Ransom Center, the conference will highlight writers and/or works represented in the collection. Researchers from a variety of fields — including Hispanic literature and culture, history of the book, music, theater, bibliography, conservation, and library science — are expected to attend.